Понятие «Права Человека»
• Универсальные правовые гарантии
• Полит., экон., соц., культурные
• Защита человеческих ценностей (свобода, равенство, достоинство)
• Присуще только индивидуумам и в некоторой степени группам
• Отображены в меж. нормах и стандартах;
• Правовое обязательство Государств
• Обязательство реализации в срочном порядке или прогрессивно
• Права человека создают:
• Human rights are universal legal guarantees underpinned by intrinsic values of the human being, which protect individuals and groups against actions and omissions that interfere with fundamental freedoms, entitlements and human dignity.
• Since the Universal Declaration on Human Rights was adopted in 1948, human rights have become codified in international, regional and national legal systems.
• In the 1993 Vienna Conference a consensus was reached that recognized all rights as equally important. The Vienna Declaration on Human Rights provides, “all human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated.” There is no hierarchy in human rights meaning that civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights have equal status. The Vienna Declaration of Human Rights also recognized that women’s rights are human rights.
• Collective rights: In some cases the equal worth and dignity of all human beings can only be assured through the recognition and protection of individuals’ rights as members of a group. The term “collective rights” or “group rights” refers to the rights of such peoples and groups, including ethnic and religious minorities and indigenous peoples, where the individual is defined by his or her ethnic, cultural or religious community. In many instances human rights claims are generally made more effectively by people acting together as a group.
• Human rights law obliges governments (principally) and other duty-bearers to do certain things and prevents them from doing others. For example, under human rights law, the State has a duty to ensure the right to the highest attainable standard of health is fulfilled by establishing measures for the implementation (including progressively) of this right.
• At the same time, the State has a duty to refrain from any action that may serve to discriminate against a group of individuals in the exercise of their rights on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Основной компонент понятия прав человека заключается в простом принципе: никто не должен относится к другому так как он/она не хотел(а) бы относились к самому нему/ней.